比較級最高級英文文法

最後更新日期:2022 年 11 月 26 日

形容詞原級、比較級comparative、最高級superlative

形容詞具有三級:原級、比較級、最高級,有些形容詞因為本身已經達到極限,故沒有比較級和最高級,例如absolute, excellent, living, dead, only…..

比較級與最高級形容詞規則變化

單音節或二音節形容詞+er / est

tall – taller – tallestclean -cleaner – cleanesthigh – higher – highest
long – longer -longestwarm – warmer -warmestdark – darker – darkest
單音節的字在字尾加er及est
nice – nicer – nicestcute – cuter – cutestsafe – safer – safest
close – closer -closestwide – wider -widestgentle –gentler -gentlest
字尾有e時,只加r及st
happy –happier-happiestdirty-dirtier-dirtiestnoisy-noisier-noisiest
pretty-prettier-prettiestheavy-heavier-heaviesteasy-easier-easiest
字尾為子音+y時,將y改為i再加er及est

注意:母音+y時,直接加er及est。例如:gray-grayer-grayest

big-bigger-biggesthot-hotter-hottestsad-sadder-saddest 
fat-fatter-fattest red-redder-reddestglad-gladder-gladdest
thin-thinner-thinnest
短母音+子音,重複子音再加er及est 

more / most +多音節形容詞

(三音節以上的字及大多數二音節字,特別由 –ful, -less, -able, ive, ing 結尾的字)

comfortable-more comfortable-most fomfortable
active – more active – most active
beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful
interesting – more interesting – most interesting
hopeless-more hopeless-most hopeless
多音節形容詞改比較級與最高級

注意:

happy (二音節)unhappy(三音節)
happier unhappier

加er/est或more/most皆可的形容詞

有些形容詞可以加er及est或前面加上more / most來形成比較級和最高級

polite – politer ( more polite)-politest (most polite)
quiet-quieter ( more quiet)-quietest (most quiet)
handsome-handsomer (more handsome)- handsomest (most handsome)
common-commoner (more common) – commonest (most common)

比較級和最高級形容詞不規則變化

good / wellbetterbest 
badworseworst 
many / muchmoremost 
oldolder
elder
oldest
eldest
年齡的比較、事物的新舊
長幼順序
latelater較晚的
latter稍後的
latest最新近的
last 最後的
時間的先後
順序的先後
farfarther 更遠further
更進一步;更遠
farthest
furthest
表示距離
表示程度或距離
littleless
littler
least
littlest
關於量,much的相反
表示大小,等於small

My elder brother is three years older than your younger sister.

His eldest son is the oldest student in our school.

My sweater is older than yours.

哥哥姊姊 elder brother/sister = older brother/sister

She came later than usual. (她比平常晚到。)

The Internet will give you the latest news.(網路會提供你最新的消息。)

He will be free in the latter part of the week.(他本週的下半周有空。)

His latest book may be his last book.(他最近出的書可能是他最後的書了。)

Kaohsiung is farther(further) from Taipei than Keelung.(從台北到高雄比到基隆遠。)

The farthest(furthest) planet from the earth is Pluto.(離地球最遠的行星是冥王星。)

I have nothing further to say on the subject.(對於這個主題我沒有什麼要講的了。)

Have you any further need of me?(你還有要我幫忙的嗎?)

很少 few – fewer – fewest + 可數名詞           little – less – least + 不可數名詞

比較級文法用法

兩人(物)相比產生的結果

A computer is more expensive than a bicycle. 一台電腦比一台腳踏車貴。

注意:than + 後需使用主格或受格

You are taller than I. = You are taller than me. 你比我高。

You are taller than I am.  (此處不得用受格)

I like you better than he (likes you). 與主格比較 (我比他喜歡你。)

I like you better than (I like) him.   與受格比較 (我比較喜歡你。)

★比較的對象要合理而且不能與自己相比較

(X) Your pencil is longer than I / me. 人與物比較

(O) Your pencil is longer than mine.(=my pencil.)

(X) Taipei is bigger than all the cities in Taiwan.所有城市包含Taipei

(X) Taipei is bigger than any city in Taiwan.任何城市包含Taipei

(O) Taipei is bigger than all the other cities in Taiwan. 所有/任何其他城市

(O) Taipei is bigger than any other city in Taiwan.   則不包含Taipei

(O) New York is bigger than all the cities/ any city in Taiwan. New York 不在台灣

注意:all the other 複數 /  any other 單數

記法: any (任一個)+單數     all (全部-三者或三者以上) +複數

相同比較對象需排除自己加other ,不同比較對象不需排除自己    不加other

Who / Which + be +比較級 , A or B ? 

Who is taller, Tom or John? 誰比較高,湯姆或約翰?

Which is more expensive, a bicycle or a computer? 哪一個比較貴,腳踏車或是電腦?

主詞+ be + the 比較級 + of the two. 

(兩個之中比較…的那一個,~包含在兩個之中)

Tom is the taller of the two. = Tom is taller than the other boy. 湯姆是兩個之中較高的。

This jacket is the more expensive of the two. 這件夾克是兩者之中較貴的。

= This jacket is more expensive than the other one. 這個夾克比另一個還貴。

修飾原級形容詞的字修飾比較級形容詞的字
very/so/quite/prettymuch / a lot / even far/a little/still
哪些字修飾原級、比較級

Tom is much taller than Jack. (Tom比Jack高多了。)

A compute is much more expensive than a bicycle. (一台電腦比一台腳踏車貴多了。)

I am a little heavier than Helen. 我比Helen胖一點

比較級 and 比較級(越來越~~)

愈來愈~句型:er and ~er / more and more ~

In summer, the days become longer and longer. 在夏天,白天越來越長了。

We have more and more much now. 我們現在有越來越多錢。

She likes eating fast food and is growing fatter and fatter. 她喜歡吃速食且越長越肥。

English becomes more and more important in our daily life.

英文在日常生活中越來越重要了。

After a typhoon, the vegetables become more and more expensive.

颱風過後,蔬菜變得越來越貴了。

less and less ~ (越來越不~~)

As we grow up, we will become less and less happy.

當我們長大,我們將越來越不快樂。

He became less and less careful on his work and finally was fired.

他工作上越來越不小心,最終被解雇了。

There will be less and less pollution if everyone helps to protect our earth.

如果人們幫助保護地球,汙染將會越來越少。

The 比較級, the 比較級. ( 越~~越~~)         

The more, the better.(越多越好。)

The more he reads, the less the understands.(他越讀越不明白。)

The older we grow, the poorer our memory will become.(年紀越大,記憶力越差。)

比較級否定句(劣級比較)

Jack is not as tall as Tom.→ Tom is taller than Jack. = Jack is shorter than Tom.

Jack不像Tom那麼高。→Tom比Jack高。

I don’t have as many books as you.→ You have more books than I.

= I have fewer books than you.

This car isn’t as expensive as that one. →That car is more expensive than this one.

= This car is cheaper than that one.

Jack is not taller than Tom.  不完全等於 Jack is shorter than Tom.

Jack並沒有比Tom高。– 可能比Tom矮,也可能和Tom一樣高。

I didn’t come earlier than you. We may come here at the same time.

I don’t have more pens than you. Maybe I have as many pens as you.

最高級文法

在一個範圍或團體中 in ~

The elephant is the biggest animal in the zoo. 大象是動物園裡最大的動物。

Helen is the most active student in my class. 在我班級中海倫是最活潑的學生。

Who / Which + be +最高級 ,  A, B, or C ?

Who is the tallest, Tom, Jack, or David? 誰是最高的,湯姆、傑克或是大衛。

Which is the most expensive, a bicycle, a motorcycle, or a car?

哪一個最貴,腳踏車、摩托車、或是車子。

S + be + the 最高級 + of the three / of all.

Of the three / of all , ~ + be + the 最高級 (三個以上或全部之中)

Tom is the tallest of the three boys. = Tom is taller than the other two boys.

湯姆是三位男孩中最高的。

This one is the most expensive of all the cars in the store.

這台車子是店內中所有車子中最貴的。

Of all the girls in my class, Maggie is the most selfish.

我們班級所有女孩子中,美琪是最自私的。

Of all my friends, Vivi is the most important one to me.

我所有朋友中,Vivi對我來說是最重要的。

S+ be + one of the +最高級 +複數名詞

Mark is one of the best students in my class.

在我班上Mike是最好的學生之一。

S + be + the 最高級 ~ that 某人 have/ has ever p.p.

This is the longest train that I have ever seen. (這是我見過最長的火車。)

This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.( 這是我看過有趣的書。)

原級、比較級、最高級互換

Taipei is the biggest city in Taiwan. 台北是台灣最大的城市

= Taipei is bigger than any other city in Taiwan.

= Taipei is bigger than all the other cities in Taiwan.

= No other city in Taiwan is so big as Taipei.

= No other city in Taiwan is bigger than Taipei.

Time is the most important of all things.

= Time is more important than any other thing. 時間是最重要的

= Nothing is more important than time.

= Nothing is so important as time.

John is taller than any other student in his class. 約翰比班上任何一位同學高。

=John is taller than every other student in his class.

= John is taller than all the other students in his class.

=John is taller than anyone else in his class.

=John is taller than everyone else in his class. 

隱含比較級 (implicit comparatives)

比較級的文法中,除了使用比較級的形容詞加上than以外,還能使用下列的單字來表示比較級。但其後接的是to 對象,且to為介係詞,後加受格。

 Cindy is older than I (am).

 Cindy ran faster than I (did).

 Cindy is senior to me.

 be senior to = be older than(地位高的、年長的、高級的)

 be junior to = be younger than(年少的;後進的;下級的),

 be superior to = be better than(優於;地位高的;上層的;上好的;出眾的)

 be inferior to = be worse than (劣於;較低的;次等的;不如的;下級的),

 be prior to = be earlier than(早於;優先的;在前的;更重要的)

 be posterior to = be later than(晚於;後面的、後部的、隨後的),

 be anterior to (前面的;前部的;較早的),

Interactive Response System is superior to paper tests. 互動式回應系統優於傳統測驗

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