spend cost take pay 花錢花時間文法(講義)

一、spend+花時間+某事

 定義:spend 用於花費多少「時間或金錢」在「某物或某事」上,主詞只能是「人」(人名或人稱代名詞)。spend(動詞三態為:spend、spent、spent)

 spend花時間問句:

人(主詞)

spend / spent

時間 ¹

金錢 $

(in) V-ing.

on 名詞.

疑問詞+time

助動詞

主詞

動詞

動詞ing+名詞(地方副詞/時間副詞)?

on+名詞?

How much time

did

you

spend

doing your homework?

on your homework?

(你花多久時間做你的回家作業?)

Spend花時間答句:

主詞

動詞

時間

動詞ing+名詞(地方副詞/時間副詞).

on+名詞..

I

spent

two hours

doing my homework.

on my homework.

(我花了兩小時做作業。)

 spend花時間文法練習:

 1.我每天都花半小時在玩手機。

I spend half an hour playing games on my cellphone every day.

 2.Paul上個星期日花了三個半小時清理房子。

 Paul spent three hours cleaning the house last Sunday.

3.The boy spends an hour reading every day.(依畫線部分造問句)

How much time does the boy spend reading every day?
4.How much time do your sisters spend going shopping every Sunday?(回答二小時)

 They spend two hours going shopping every Sunday.

 5. Sally每個月花多少錢在衣服上?

  How much money does Sally spend on clothes every month?

 6. . 我每週花三小時練習日文。

     I spend three hours practicing Japanese every week.

 → I spend three hours on Japanese every week.

 二、cost+花金錢

 定義:用來表示「花費金錢」,主詞必須是「物品」或「事情」。(動詞三態為:cost、cost、cost)

 cost花金錢問句:

疑問詞

助動詞

物品(主詞)

原形動詞

(受詞)?

How much

did

the book

cost

(you)?

疑問詞

助動詞

it(虛主詞)

cost

to VR?

How much

did

it

cost

you

to buy the book

(這本書花了你/你們多少錢?)

 cost花金錢答句:

 (1) 以「普通名詞」或「動名詞(V-ing)」當主詞

普通名詞

動名詞(V-ing

cost(s) / cost

(人)

金錢

The bus ticket

costs

 

NT$100.

Buying the concert ticket

costs

me

NT$1450.

 (這張公車票值新臺幣一百元)

 (買這張票花了我台幣一千四百五十元。)

 (2)以「虛主詞It」當主詞,用以取代其後的「不定詞」(to V)

代名詞

動詞

受詞

金錢

(to buy+物品).

It

cost

me/us

five hundred dollars

(to buy the book).

(它花了我五百元。)

 cost花錢文法練習:

 1.  It cost Tina seven hundred dollars to buy the steak.(依畫線部分造原問句)

How much did the steak cost Tina? (較佳)

How much did it cost Tina to but the steak?(綴述)

2.  Three loaves of bread cost two hundred dollars.(依畫線部分造原問句)

How much did three loaves of bread cost?

3.  Maria上星期六在這間飯店住一晚就花了七千元。

It cost Maria seven thousand dollars to stay in this hotel for one night last Saturday.

4.  在停車場停車總是會花我四十元。

It always cost me forty dollars to park my car in the parking garage.

5. 買一臺車要花多少錢?How much does it cost to buy a car?

6. 去美國旅行花了你多少錢?How much did it cost you to take a trip to the USA?

7. 這台i phone 13多少錢?

 How much does the i phone 13 cost ?

8. 他花了三萬元買沙發。

  It cost him $30,000 to buy the sofa.

9. 我以前花了很多錢學英文。

  I spent a lot of money on English before.

→ It cost me a lot of money to study English before.

三、Take花費時間的用法

 定義:take可用來表示「花費多少時間完成某事」,take的主詞只能是「事情或活動」(動詞三態為:take、took、taken)。

take直述句:

 使用take會有兩種型式的句子。第一種是採用「動名詞」,第二種是採用「虛主詞」。

 (1)「動名詞」

普通名詞

動名詞(V-ing

take(s) / took

(人)

時間

The report

took

me

thirty minutes

Cooking dinner (often)

takes

my mom

 half an hour.

 (這份報告花了我三十分鐘。)

 (煮晚餐常常花我媽媽半個小時。)

 (2)「虛主詞」

代名詞

 take(s)/took

人(受詞)

時間

(to VR).

It

took

me

ten minutes

 to wash the dishes last night.

 (昨天晚上我花了十分鐘洗碗。)

 take花費時間練習題:

1.事實上,大多數的警察花費很少的時間處理暴力犯罪。

In fact, the majority of officers spend only a small fraction of their time responding to violent crime.

2.  種稻米花了農夫三個月的時間。

動名詞當主詞:Growing the rice takes the farmer three months.

 虛主詞當主詞:It takes the farmer three months to grow the rice.

 3.  Cindy花了很多時間才解決這個問題。

動名詞當主詞:Solving the problem took Cindy a lot of time.

虛主詞當主詞:It took Cindy a lot of time to solve the problem. 

4.  Jimmy 花了三小時修理車子。 

動名詞當主詞:Fixing the car took Jimmy there hours.

虛主詞當主詞:It took Jimmy three hours to fix the car.

 take花費時間問答句

 take花費時間問句:

How long

助動詞

it

原形動詞+(受詞)

不定詞+原形動詞+受詞

(時間副詞)?

How long

does

it

take (you)

to clean the kitchen

every day?

 take花費時間答句:

虛主詞

動詞

(受詞)

時間

不定詞+原形動詞+受詞

(時間副詞).

It

takes

(me)

thirty minutes

to clean the kitchen

every day.

 1 Q:Paul上星期日花了多少時間打籃球? A:他花了三小時打籃球。

    Q: How long did it take Paul to play the basketball?

     A: It took him one hour to play the basketball.

costspend互換

  cost跟spend同樣都可以用來表示花錢,但是spend是用「人」當主詞,而cost則是用「物品」或「事情」當主詞。

costspend互換練習題:

 1.  這支手機花費Jessie三千元。

 This cellphone cost Jessie twenty thousand dollars.

 Jessie spent twenty thousand dollars on this cellphone.

 2.  Ben昨晚花了三千元吃大餐。

 Ben spent three thousand dollars having a great meal last night.

 It cost Ben three thousand dollars to have a great meal last night.

 3.  她今天早上花了50元買了花。

 She spent fifty dollars on/buying the flower this morning.

 The flower cost her fifty dollars this morning.

 It cost her fifty dollars to buy the flower this morning.

takespend互換練習題:

 1.  John飯後花五分鐘喝一杯茶。

 It takes John five minutes to drink a cup of tea after meal.

 John spends five minutes drinking a cup of tea after meal.

 2.  Peggy花了半小時走路回家。

   Peggy spent half an hour walking home.

 It took Peggy half an hour to walk home.

costspendtake總複習

項目

主詞

動詞

例句

花錢

spend

Tina spent one million dollars studying abroad.

事物

cost

It cost Tina one million dollars to study abroad.

花時間

spend

I spent seven years finishing my PhD.

事物

take

It took me seven years to finish my PhD.

 「某物花了某人多少錢」的句型結構:

 問句1: How much+did+物+cost(+人)?

 問句2: How much+did+it+cost(+人)+to+做某事/買某物?

 問句3: How much+did+人+spend+V-ing…?

 →意指「(某人)花了多少錢做某事/買某物?」

 答句1: 物+cost(+人)+錢.

 答句2: It cost(+人)+錢+to+做某事/買某物.

 答句3: 人+spent+錢+V-ing….→意指「做某事/買某物花了(某人)多少錢。」

人 pay 錢 for 物 ( 某人為了某物付了多少錢):

 I paid five hundred dollars for the dress.  我為了這件洋裝付了5百元。

 A pay B錢= A pay錢to B. 

 I worked for Mary, so she paid three thousand dollars to me.

 I worked for Mary, so she paid me three thousand.

 pay for 事物 付錢買…(事物)  It’s your turn to pay for dinner. 這次輪到你付晚餐錢了

 pay for 人    為…(人)付錢   

 I forgot to bring my wallet.  Could you please pay for me? 我忘記帶錢包,可以請你先幫我付錢嗎?

 pay 人錢   付錢給…(人) When will you pay me the money? 你何時要付錢給我?

 pay 人 back 還錢給…(人) If you want to borrow any money from me, remember to pay me back. 假如你想要跟我借錢,記得要還我。

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