被動語態(感官&使役&授與動詞)

最後更新日期:2022 年 11 月 12 日

被動語態文法句型

主詞(動作的承受者)+be動詞+過去分詞pp+(by +動作的施予者)不能做出該動作的主詞就要使用被動,如食物被吃、衣服被穿、照片被拍…..

被動的基本結構是 be動詞+PP         

(be動詞是助動詞, 主要動詞的詞彙意義在「過去分詞pp」。)

被動語態的BE動詞決定時態

不一定都有「by ….」片語。動作的產生者為people、you、we、they、someone等不特定對象時,「by ….」片語可省略。

被動語態時態表

      時態    變化例句
現在簡單式的被動 is / am / are+p.p. The cake is eaten by me.
過去簡單式的被動 was / were+p.p.The cake was eaten by me.
未來簡單式的被動 will be+p.p.   The cake will be eaten by me.
現在進行式的被動  is / am / are+being+p.p.The cake is being eaten by me.
過去進行式的被動  was / were+being+p.p.The cake was being eaten by me.
現在完成式的被動 have / has been p.p.The cake has been eaten by me.
過去完成式的被動  had / been p.p.The cake had been eaten by me.

沒有被動語態的動詞

連綴動詞(如look、taste、happen、cost、have(有)、look、feel、smell、become)沒有被動形式。cost(花費)、take(花費)、have(有)等動詞也沒有被動式。

被動片語動詞

My father was surprised at the news.→The news surprised my father.

My brother is bored with math.→Math bores my brother.

A lot of people are excited about Harry Potter.→Harry Potter excites a lot of people.

be known to (被~所知)

be filled with =be full of (被充滿)

be covered with (被覆蓋)

be made of (材料可見) 

be made from (型態改變)以~製成

否定句被動

在「be動詞」後面加not。

The cake was not made by Mom.  蛋糕不是被媽媽製作的。

The wound must not be moved at random.    

被動語態疑問句

1. be動詞為首的問句→依一般Yes-No句型變化之。
直述句:Most of the websites are built in English.  

疑問句:Are most of the websites built in English?
回答:Yes, they are.
2. 疑問詞為首的問句→依一般疑問詞句型變化之【疑問詞+be動詞+主詞…..】。

疑問句:When was the book put on the desk by John? 答:Yesterday.

Where was the book put by John yesterday?      答:On the desk.

What was put on the desk by John yesterday?        答:The book.

By whom was the book put on the desk yesterday?    答:John.

說明:詢問被動動作的產生者(John)時,須以「介係詞+whom/ what」為首來發問。

The book was written by a famous artist.=By whom was the book written?

The bugs have been killed by the modern machine.=By what have the bugs been killed?

使役動詞被動語態

主動句型:主詞+使役動詞+受詞+原形動詞.

被動句型:主詞+be動詞+使役動詞過去分詞+to+原形動詞+by+受詞.

A be made/had to VR by sb. (A被要求做某事)

主動:My mother made me do the housework yesterday. (我媽媽昨天命令我做家事。)

被動:I was made to do the housework yesterday by my mother .(我昨天被媽媽命令做家事)

主動語態使役動詞句中的受詞,原本使用 「原型動詞」,為特殊動詞用法。但改成被動語態後,因主要動詞為be動詞,p.p.(使役動詞)失去原本的使役特性,需視為一般動詞的過去分詞。故不可以在句中出現第二個動詞。故主動語態的「原形動詞」需改為「不定詞」,並置於被動句中的過去分詞之後。

主動:Cindy has us hand in the report right away. (Cindy要求我們立刻繳交報告。)

被動:We are had to hand in the report right away by Cindy. (我們被Cindy要求立刻繳交報告)

主動:Mom made Susan wash the dishes this evening. 媽媽今天晚上命令蘇珊洗碗

被動:Susan was made to wash the dishes this evening.

let在被動語態中,不被使用。要改成此字allow(允許)。

主動句型:主詞+let+受詞+原形動詞.

被動句型:主詞+be動詞+allowed+to+原形動詞+by+受詞.

主動: My father let me go shopping with my friends.

被動:I was allowed to go shopping with my friends by my father.

Our teacher lets us eat in class.(我們老師讓我們上課吃東西)

→ We are allowed to eat in class by our teacher.

感官動詞被動語態

感官動詞後加原形動詞 (強調事實)

主動:I heard(過去式) the bird sing in the tree. (和使役動詞用法相同)

被動:The bird was heard(p.p.) to sing in the tree (by me).

主動: A +感官動詞 look at/watch/see/listen to/herar/feel +原型動詞(VR).

A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed +to rv+by+受詞. (A被看到做某事)

主動:Jack heard the bird sing this morning.(今天早上傑克聽到小鳥唱歌。)

被動: The bird was heard to sing this morning by Jack.

感官動詞後加Ving (強調看/聽/注意到某事進行的過程)

主動:I heard the bird singing in the tree.

被動:The bird was heard(p.p.) singing in the tree (by me).

主動: A +感官動詞 look at/watch/see/listen to/herar/feel +現在分詞(Ving)

A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed + 現在分詞(Ving) +by+受詞.(A被看到做某事)

主動:Ivy saw the old lady crossing the road. Ivy看那位老婦人過馬路。

被動:The old lady was seen crossing the road by Ivy.

說明:感官動詞(see、hear、feel)在主動句中受詞補語是「原形動詞」,而在被動句中,原來的受詞補語要改成「to-V」形式。主動態為ving則維持不變,置於被動be+pp之後。

授與動詞被動語態

主動:A +give +B+ 物.

被動:B +be+p.p.+ 物 +by A.

主動:Tom gave Mary a comic book.

被動:Mary was given a comic book by Tom.

說明:主動句中的間接受詞(Mary)當被動式中的主詞時,不需介係詞。

主動: A give 物 to 人.

被動:物+be+p.p.+to /for B+by+A

主動:Tom gave a book to Mary.

被動:A comic book was given to Mary by Tom.

說明:主動句中的直接受詞(a comic book)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。

主動:Nancy bought Jack pearl milk tea. Nancy bought pearl milk tea for Jack.

被動:Pearl milk tea was bought for Jack by Nancy.

主動句中的直接受詞(pearl milk tea)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。

【誤】Jack was bought pearl milk tea by Nancy 語意上,Jack不會被買。

含助動詞的被動語態

說明:may have pp指對過去可能的推測。

The machine should have been used by engineers only.

說明:should have pp指過去原本該做而沒做。

例如:Students have to do the homework by themselves.

The homework has to be done by students themselves.

1. 由於助動詞的關係,be動詞要用原形,而be動詞之後的結構不變。

2. 含助動詞的被動語態的否定句是將助動詞改為否定形式,而不是在be後面加not。

need的主詞為物時,以現在分詞表被動。

Need ving表被動

need的主詞為物時,以現在分詞表被動

例如:The dishes need washing.=The dishes need to be washed.

例如:The dishes need washing.→The dishes need to be washed.

表示客觀的說明,且說話者無特定對象時可用

It is +p.p. that 名詞子句句型(等於 People ……)

It is believed by many people that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.

→People believe that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.

其他常見片語有:It is said that….(據說)、It is reported…(據報導)、It is thought….(大家認為)

英文被動語態文法 沒有被動的動詞 容易混淆的主被動 動名詞與不定詞的被動

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