被動語態(感官&使役&授與動詞)

最後更新日期: 2022 年 5 月 8 日 by 阿莓莓KIKI

被動語態文法句型:

主詞(動作的承受者)+be動詞+過去分詞pp+(by +動作的施予者)不能做出該動作的主詞就要使用被動,如食物被吃、衣服被穿、照片被拍…..

被動的基本結構是 be動詞+PP         (be動詞是助動詞, 主要動詞的詞彙意義在「過去分詞pp」。)

被動語態的BE動詞決定時態

不一定都有「by ….」片語。動作的產生者為people、you、we、they、someone等不特定對象時,「by ….」片語可省略。

被動語態時態表

      時態    變化
例句
 現在簡單式的被動 is / am / are+p.p. 
The cake is eaten by me.
 過去簡單式的被動 was / were+p.p.The cake was eaten by me.
   未來簡單式的被動
 will be+p.p.   The cake will be eaten by me.
 現在進行式的被動  is / am / are+being+p.p.The cake is being eaten by me.
 過去進行式的被動  was / were+being+p.p.
The cake was being eaten by me.
 現在完成式的被動 have / has been p.p.The cake has been eaten by me.
 過去完成式的被動  had / been p.p.The cake had been eaten by me.

沒有被動語態的動詞:

 連綴動詞(如looktastehappencosthave(有)、lookfeelsmellbecome)沒有被動形式

cost(花費)、take(花費)、have(有)等動詞也沒有被動式。

by…」之外用於被動句的介系詞片語

 My father was surprised at the news.→The news surprised my father.

My brother is bored with math.→Math bores my brother.

A lot of people are excited about Harry Potter.→Harry Potter excites a lot of people.

be known to (~所知)

be filled with =be full of (被充滿)

be covered with (被覆蓋)

be made of (材料可見

be made from (型態改變)以~製成

被動語態的各種形式

1否定句

說明:在「be動詞」後面加not

The cake was not made by Mom.  蛋糕不是被媽媽製作的。

The wound must not be moved at random.    

2疑問句

1. be動詞為首的問句→依一般Yes-No句型變化之。
直述句:Most of the websites are built in English.  

疑問句:Are most of the websites built in English?
回答:Yes, they are.
2.
疑問詞為首的問句→依一般疑問詞句型變化之【疑問詞+be動詞+主詞…..】。

(3)直述句

John put the book on the desk yesterday.

(1)疑問句:問:When was the book put on the desk by John? 答:Yesterday.
(2)問:Where was the book put by John yesterday?         答:On the desk.\

(3)問:What was put on the desk by John yesterday?        答:The book.
(4 )
問:By whom was the book put on the desk yesterday?    答:John.
說明:詢問被動動作的產生者(John)時,須以「介係詞+whom/ what」為首來發問。
例如:The book was written by a famous artist. =>By whom was the book written?
例如:The bugs have been killed by the modern machine. =>By what have the bugs been killed?
感官動詞或使役動詞的被動語態

句型:A +be +let/made/had+to +VR   (A被要求做某事)

A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed +to Rv (A被看到做某事)

主動:Mom made Susan wash the dishes this evening.

被動:Susan was made to wash the dishes this evening.
說明:感官動詞(seehearfeel)或使役動詞在主動句中受詞補語是「原形動詞」,而在被動句中,原來的受詞補語要改成「to-V」形式
授與動詞的被動語態
主動:Tom gave Mary a comic book.被動:Mary was given a comic book by Tom. B+be+pp++by+A
說明:主動句中的間接受詞(Mary)當被動式中的主詞時,不需介係詞。

Tom gave a book to Mary. 被動:A comic book was given to Mary by Tom. +be+p.p.+to /for B+by+A
說明:主動句中的直接受詞(a comic book)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。

主動:Nancy bought Jack pearl milk tea. Nancy bought pearl milk tea for Jack.
被動:Pearl milk tea was bought for Jack by Nancy.
主動句中的直接受詞(pearl milk tea)當被動式中的主詞時,需介係詞。
【誤】Jack was bought pearl milk tea by Nancy.=>語意上,Jack不會被買。

含助動詞的被動語態

說明:may have pp指對過去可能的推測。
例如:The machine should have been used by engineers only.
說明:should have pp指過去原本該做而沒做。
例如:Students have to do the homework by themselves.The homework has to be done by students themselves.
1.
由於助動詞的關係,be動詞要用原形,而be動詞之後的結構不變。
2.
含助動詞的被動語態的否定句是將助動詞改為否定形式,而不是在be後面加not
need
的主詞為物時,以現在分詞表被動。
例如:The dishes need washing.=>The dishes need to be washed.

表示客觀的說明,且說話者無特定對象時可用

It is p.p. that 名詞子句」的句型(等於 People ……)。
It is believed by many people that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.
→People believe that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.
其他常見片語有:
It is said that….
(據說)、It is reported…(據報導)、
It is thought….(大家認為)

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