最後更新日期：2023 年 04 月 26 日
不一定都有「by ….」片語。動作的產生者為people、you、we、they、someone等不特定對象時，「by ….」片語可省略。
|現在簡單式的被動||is / am / are＋p.p.||The cake is eaten by me.|
|過去簡單式的被動||was / were＋p.p.||The cake was eaten by me.|
|未來簡單式的被動||will be＋p.p.||The cake will be eaten by me.|
|現在進行式的被動||is / am / are＋being＋p.p.||The cake is being eaten by me.|
|過去進行式的被動||was / were＋being＋p.p.||The cake was being eaten by me.|
|現在完成式的被動||have / has been p.p.||The cake has been eaten by me.|
|過去完成式的被動||had / been p.p.||The cake had been eaten by me.|
My father was surprised at the news.→The news surprised my father.
My brother is bored with math.→Math bores my brother.
A lot of people are excited about Harry Potter.→Harry Potter excites a lot of people.
be known to (被~所知)
be filled with =be full of (被充滿)
be covered with (被覆蓋)
be made of (材料可見)
be made from (型態改變)以~製成
The cake was not made by Mom. 蛋糕不是被媽媽製作的。
The wound must not be moved at random.
直述句：Most of the websites are built in English.
疑問句：Are most of the websites built in English?
回答：Yes, they are.
疑問句：When was the book put on the desk by John? 答：Yesterday.
Where was the book put by John yesterday? 答：On the desk.
What was put on the desk by John yesterday? 答：The book.
By whom was the book put on the desk yesterday? 答：John.
The book was written by a famous artist.=By whom was the book written?
The bugs have been killed by the modern machine.=By what have the bugs been killed?
A be made/had to VR by sb. (A被要求做某事)
主動：My mother made me do the housework yesterday. (我媽媽昨天命令我做家事。)
被動：I was made to do the housework yesterday by my mother .(我昨天被媽媽命令做家事)
主動：Cindy has us hand in the report right away. (Cindy要求我們立刻繳交報告。)
被動：We are had to hand in the report right away by Cindy. (我們被Cindy要求立刻繳交報告)
主動：Mom made Susan wash the dishes this evening. 媽媽今天晚上命令蘇珊洗碗
被動：Susan was made to wash the dishes this evening.
主動： My father let me go shopping with my friends.
被動：I was allowed to go shopping with my friends by my father.
Our teacher lets us eat in class.(我們老師讓我們上課吃東西)
→ We are allowed to eat in class by our teacher.
主動：I heard(過去式) the bird sing in the tree. (和使役動詞用法相同)
被動：The bird was heard(p.p.) to sing in the tree (by me).
主動： A +感官動詞 look at/watch/see/listen to/herar/feel +原型動詞(VR).
A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed +to rv＋by＋受詞. (A被看到做某事)
主動：Jack heard the bird sing this morning.(今天早上傑克聽到小鳥唱歌。)
被動: The bird was heard to sing this morning by Jack.
主動：I heard the bird singing in the tree.
被動：The bird was heard(p.p.) singing in the tree (by me).
主動： A +感官動詞 look at/watch/see/listen to/herar/feel +現在分詞(Ving)
A+be+looked at/seen/watched/listened to/heard/felt/noticed + 現在分詞(Ving) ＋by＋受詞.(A被看到做某事)
主動：Ivy saw the old lady crossing the road. Ivy看那位老婦人過馬路。
被動：The old lady was seen crossing the road by Ivy.
主動：A +give +B+ 物.
被動：B +be+p.p.+ 物 +by A.
主動：Tom gave Mary a comic book.
被動：Mary was given a comic book by Tom.
主動： A give 物 to 人.
被動：物+be+p.p.+to /for B+by+A
主動：Tom gave a book to Mary.
被動：A comic book was given to Mary by Tom.
說明：主動句中的直接受詞（a comic book）當被動式中的主詞時，需介係詞。
主動：Nancy bought Jack pearl milk tea. Nancy bought pearl milk tea for Jack.
被動：Pearl milk tea was bought for Jack by Nancy.
主動句中的直接受詞（pearl milk tea）當被動式中的主詞時，需介係詞。
【誤】Jack was bought pearl milk tea by Nancy 語意上，Jack不會被買。
說明：may have pp指對過去可能的推測。
The machine should have been used by engineers only.
說明：should have pp指過去原本該做而沒做。
例如：Students have to do the homework by themselves.
The homework has to be done by students themselves.
例如：The dishes need washing.=The dishes need to be washed.
例如：The dishes need washing.→The dishes need to be washed.
It is ＋p.p. that 名詞子句句型（等於 People ……）
It is believed by many people that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.
→People believe that it is bad luck to enter the tomb.
其他常見片語有：It is said that….（據說）、It is reported…（據報導）、It is thought….（大家認為）