Standing by your side, I feel safer. 站在你身旁，我覺得安全多了。
Protected by the policeman, the little girl felt safer. (因為被警察保護著，小女孩覺得安全多了。) 1. 分詞構句：描寫同一個主詞所發生不同動作之間的關係。
(1).「時間」（while, after, before, when, as,as soon as,Since, until）
(2).「原因」（because, since, as, now that）
(3).「條件」（if, unless,only if,whether or not,even if,in case,in the event that）
(4).「讓步」（although, though, even though）
◎分詞構句中，附屬連接詞不可省略者：如unless (除非), once (一旦), as (如同), even if/though (即使), as if (彷彿/好像), until (直到) 等。
◎否定時，將「not 」或「never」放在 Ving 或 p.p. 分詞前。
1.When I stand by your side, I feel safer.=Standing by your side, I feel safer.
d. Stand 這個動作I這個主詞可以主動執行該動作，因此判斷為主動改成V-ing
2. Because the little girl was protected by the policeman, she felt safer.
= Protected by the policeman, the little girl felt safer.
a.判斷the little girl與she 為同一人
c.將the little girl 去掉
1. 副詞子句若時態為完成式，就改成Having pp.
After he had finished his work, he went to bed.
=Having finished his work, he went to bed.
d.had finished 為完成式，因此改成Having +pp.→Having finished (工作要被完成)→被動態p.p.
Because she didn’t know what to do, the little girl began to cry.(不知道該做什麼，小女孩開始哭泣。)
= Not knowing what to do, the little girl began to cry.
d. didn’t 為否定加入not 。主詞She能主動做出know這個動作，因此為主動態V-ing.→Not knnowing
3. 副詞子句若時態為被動完成式，則須將子句的動詞簡化成[ having + been + p.p. ]或[ p.p. ]。
He had been sent to prison for three months because of committing burglary, and he was caught again when he stole a woman’s purse three days ago.
= Having been sent to prison for three months because of committing burglary, and he was caught again when he stole a woman’s purse three days ago.
= Sent to prison for three months because of committing burglary, and he was caught again when he stole a woman’s purse three days ago.
S1 + V1 … and (or/but)S2+V2…=S1+V1…, V2ing/ V2pp…
Jane sat down and listened to their talk. = Jane sat down, _______ to their talk. (listening)
The officer hurried to the hall and was followed by three guards.
= The officer hurried to the hall, ______ by three guards. (followed)
His father died, leaving nothing but a lot of debts.(她父親死了，什麼也沒留下，只留下許多債務。)
=His father died, and he left nothing but a lot of debts.
The girl sat under the tree, surrounded by many children. (那女孩坐在樹下，許多孩子包圍著她。)
=The girl sat under the tree, and she was surrounded by many children.
S1+V1+先行詞+who/which/that +V… →N Ving/Vpp…
I have a friend who lives in Paris.
= I have a friend ____________ in Paris. (living)
What is the language which is spoken in New Zealand
=What is the language ___________ in New Zealand? (spoken)
1.「時間（when, while, as, after, before）」
2.「原因（because, since, as）」
連接詞+S1+V1…, S2+V2…→連接詞 + Vp.p. (被動) …, S 2+ V2.
While the girls heard the good news, they all jumped for joy.
(1)→ While ______ the good news, the girls all jumped for joy. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (hearing)
(2)→ ________ the good news, the girls all jumped for joy. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Hearing)
As the thief was seen by a policeman, he ran away.
(1)→ As _______by a policeman, the thief ran away. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (Seen)
(2)→ ________ by a policeman, the thief ran away. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Seen)
Because I was tired out, I went to bed early.
(1) →Because , I went to bed early. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (Being tired)
(2) → , I went to bed early. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Being tired)
As Mr. Smith doesn’t have a car, he finds it difficult to get around.
(1)→ As ______ a car, Mr. Smith finds it difficult to get around. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (not having)
(2)→ _______ a car, Mr. Smith finds it difficult to get around. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Not having)
After the writer had completed his book, he took a trip to Japan.
(1)→ After _________________ his book, the writer took a trip to Japan. 保留連接詞,省略主詞(having completed)
(2)→ _________________ his book, the writer took a trip to Japan. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (Having completed)
________________ her baby ___________, the mother __________ into the baby’s room to __________ on it.
_________________ _____________ an excellent ____________, John was _____________ by his teacher.
____________ out a _____________ ______________ from his pocket, John _______________ to Mary.
_____________ _____________ what to do, the little girl _____________ to _____________.
1.Hearing crying ran check
2.. Having done report praised
3.Taking diamond ring proposed
4.Not Knowing began cry
獨立分詞構句— S1 + (V1-ing/V1-pp)…, S2 + V2… （或前後互換）
口訣：省略連接詞，動詞變分詞：主動 → ing、被動 → p.p.！（S1 =/= S2主詞不同）
When the school was over, the students started to go home.
→The school being over, the students started to go home.
If the weather permits, we will have a picnic tomorrow.
→Weather permitting, we will have a picnic tomorrow.
a.從屬子句的主詞是the weather 主要子句主詞為we,前後主詞不同，因此都必須保留
Because he was absent, nothing could be done.
→He being absent, nothing could be done.
基本結構：(With) + O + V-ing/V-p.p. …, S + V… （with 可省略而形成獨立分詞構句）
She sat there with her eyes closed.
While reading the newspaper, the cat jumped on the table. (X)
While I reading the newspaper, the cat jumped on the table.
Generally speaking, science has provided us with many valuable things.
generally speaking 一般說來
strictly speaking 嚴格來說
Judging from 由… 看來
Frankly speaking 坦白地說
Speaking of (=Talking of…) 說到
Broadly speaking 廣義地說
Roughly speaking 大略地說
Seeing that 既然
According as 根據, 取決於
According to 根據, 依據
Allowing for 考慮到
Depending on 依據、根據
Honestly speaking 老實說
Provided/ providing 假如
Speaking of 說到