分詞構句與獨立分詞構句文法

V-ing,S+V
PP.,S+V
英文分詞構句句型

分詞構句

Standing by your side, I feel safer.  站在你身旁,我覺得安全多了。

Protected by the policeman, the little girl felt safer.  (因為被警察保護著,小女孩覺得安全多了。)  1.  分詞構句:描寫同一個主詞所發生不同動作之間的關係。

2.目的:是將原本兩個主詞相同的子句合併簡化。

3.分詞構句有兩種情況:(A)放在句首的分詞構句(B)放在句尾的分詞構句

4. 簡化的多為以下副詞子句:

(1).「時間」(while, after, before, when, as,as soon as,Since, until)

(2).「原因」(because, since, as, now that)

(3).「條件」(if, unless,only if,whether or not,even if,in case,in the event that)

(4).「讓步」(although, though, even though)

◎分詞構句中,附屬連接詞不可省略者:如unless (除非), once (一旦), as (如同), even if/though (即使), as if (彷彿/好像), until (直到) 等。

5. 簡化步驟:

(1).確認兩子句主詞相同

(2).去掉引導副詞子句的連接詞

(3).再去掉副詞子句的主詞,將其動詞

A.改為現在分詞(主動時)V-ing

B.保留過去分詞(被動時)p.p.

◎否定時,將「not 」或「never」放在 Ving 或 p.p. 分詞前。

1.When I stand by your side, I feel safer.=Standing by your side, I feel safer.

a.兩句主詞皆是I (同一人)

b.去掉連接詞when

c.去掉when 之後的主詞I

d. Stand 這個動作I這個主詞可以主動執行該動作,因此判斷為主動改成V-ing

 2. Because the little girl was protected by the policeman, she felt safer.

= Protected by the policeman, the little girl felt safer.

a.判斷the little girl與she 為同一人

b.將Because去掉

c.將the little girl 去掉

d.protect (女孩為被保護對象,因此為被動態)→protected

注意:

1. 副詞子句若時態為完成式,就改成Having pp.

After he had finished his work, he went to bed.

=Having finished his work, he went to bed.

a.判斷完成工作的he與上床睡覺的he 為同一人

b.將After去掉

c.將he 去掉

d.had finished 為完成式,因此改成Having +pp.→Having finished (工作要被完成)→被動態p.p.

2. 分詞構句的否定,在前面加not即可。

     Because she didn’t know what to do, the little girl began to cry.(不知道該做什麼,小女孩開始哭泣。)

= Not knowing what to do, the little girl began to cry.

a.判斷前後句子為同一人

b.將Because 去掉

c.將she 去掉

d. didn’t 為否定加入not 。主詞She能主動做出know這個動作,因此為主動態V-ing.→Not knnowing

3. 副詞子句若時態為被動完成式,則須將子句的動詞簡化成[ having + been + p.p. ]或[ p.p. ]。

  He had been sent to prison for three months because of committing burglary, and he was caught again when he stole a woman’s purse three days ago.

(因為犯下竊盜罪他過去已經被送去關過三個月了,他三天前再次被抓,他偷了一名女人的皮包。)

= Having been sent to prison for three months because of committing burglary, and he was caught again when he stole a woman’s purse three days ago.

= Sent to prison for three months because of committing burglary, and he was caught again when he stole a woman’s purse three days ago.


(1)對等連接詞簡化

同一個主詞做兩個動作,後面動詞可改為分詞Ving/Vpp

S1 + V1 … and (or/but)S2+V2…=S1+V1…, V2ing/ V2pp…

Jane sat down and listened to their talk. = Jane sat down, _______ to their talk. (listening)

The officer hurried to the hall and was followed by three guards.

= The officer hurried to the hall,  ______  by three guards. (followed)

His father died, leaving nothing but a lot of debts.(她父親死了,什麼也沒留下,只留下許多債務。)

=His father died, and he left nothing but a lot of debts.

The girl sat under the tree,  surrounded by many children. (那女孩坐在樹下,許多孩子包圍著她。)

=The girl sat under the tree, and she was surrounded by many children.


(2) 關係子句(形容詞子句)簡化

關係代名詞當主格時可簡化成分詞片語Ving/Vpp
S1+V1+先行詞+who/which/that +V… →N Ving/Vpp…

I have a friend who lives in Paris.
= I have a friend ____________ in Paris. (living)

What is the language which is spoken in New Zealand

=What is the language ___________ in New Zealand? (spoken)

(3) 副詞子句簡化

前後子句主詞相同,連接詞中的主詞省略,動詞改為分詞Ving/Vpp

1.「時間(when, while, as, after, before)」 

2.「原因(because, since, as)」
3.「條件(if, unless)」                 

4.「讓步(although, though)」

簡化時,先去掉引導副詞子句的連接詞,而原本連接的兩子句主詞須相同,再來去掉副詞子句的主詞,並將其動詞改為現在分詞(表主動、進行)或只保留過去分詞(表被動)。                                                                                                V-ing(主動/進行)

連接詞+S1+V1…, S2+V2…→連接詞 +     Vp.p. (被動)     …, S 2+ V2.

                                                                       (Being) Adj.              

  While the girls heard the good news, they all jumped for joy.
(1)→ While ______ the good news, the girls all jumped for joy. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (hearing)
(2)→  ________ the good news, the girls all jumped for joy. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Hearing)

  As the thief was seen by a policeman, he ran away.
(1)→ As _______by a policeman, the thief ran away. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (Seen)
(2)→  ________ by a policeman, the thief ran away. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Seen)

   Because I was tired out, I went to bed early.
(1) →Because , I went to bed early. 保留連接詞,省略主詞  (Being tired)

(2) → , I went to bed early. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Being tired)

   As Mr. Smith doesn’t have a car, he finds it difficult to get around.
(1)→ As  ______ a car, Mr. Smith finds it difficult to get around. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (not having)
(2)→ _______   a car, Mr. Smith finds it difficult to get around. 省略連接詞及主詞 (Not having)

   After the writer had completed his book, he took a trip to Japan.

(1)→ After _________________ his book, the writer took a trip to Japan. 保留連接詞,省略主詞(having completed)

(2)→ _________________ his book, the writer took a trip to Japan. 保留連接詞,省略主詞 (Having completed)

分詞構句練習題:

1. 一聽到嬰兒的哭聲,媽媽跑進房間去確認。
________________ her baby ___________, the mother __________ into the baby’s room to __________ on it.

2.已經做完很棒的報告,John獲得老師的讚美。
_________________ _____________ an excellent ____________, John was _____________ by his teacher.

3. 從口袋拿出鑽石戒指,John向Mary求婚。
____________ out a _____________ ______________ from his pocket, John _______________ to Mary.
4. 不知道該怎麼辦,小女孩開始哭泣。
_____________ _____________ what to do, the little girl _____________ to _____________.

1.Hearing  crying  ran  check

2.. Having  done  report  praised

3.Taking diamond ring proposed

4.Not Knowing began cry


獨立分詞構句

在分詞構句中,若分詞構句的主詞和主要子句的主詞不一致時,兩個子句的主詞都要保留,此稱為獨立分詞構句。

獨立分詞構句— S1 + (V1-ing/V1-pp)…, S2 + V2…  (或前後互換)   

口訣:省略連接詞,動詞變分詞:主動 → ing、被動 → p.p.!(S1 =/= S2主詞不同)

When the school was over, the students started to go home.

→The school being over, the students started to go home.

If the weather permits, we will have a picnic tomorrow.

→Weather permitting, we will have a picnic tomorrow.

a.從屬子句的主詞是the weather 主要子句主詞為we,前後主詞不同,因此都必須保留

b.動詞改成分詞: 主動改為permitting

c.在省略連接詞仍能清楚表達語意下,省略連接詞IF

Because he was absent, nothing could be done.

→He being absent, nothing could be done.

◎狀態with:與分詞連用,表同時附帶的狀態。

基本結構:(With) + O + V-ing/V-p.p.  …, S + V…  (with 可省略而形成獨立分詞構句)

She sat there with her eyes closed.

懸虛分詞(dangling participle):是指分詞片語作為修飾語時,懸盪於句子中,無法清楚地標示出所要描述的對象。為避免此情況,分詞片語原則上都要靠近名詞,若是距離太遠與主詞脫節會造成句意不清。

While reading the newspaper, the cat jumped on the table. (X)

貓咪不會閱讀報紙,前後主詞不一致,會導致句意模糊

因此改為

While I reading the newspaper, the cat jumped on the table.

分詞結構慣用語

不受主詞一致的規則限制,因其主詞是由不特定的人或一般皆知的人,如:we.they.people,everyone,anyone等,主詞可以省略,雖然句子前後的主詞不一致,但文法仍正確。

Generally speaking, science has provided us with many valuable things.

總的來說, 科學為我們帶來許多有價值的東西.

generally speaking 一般說來

Considering以… 而論

strictly speaking 嚴格來說

Judging from 由… 看來

Frankly speaking 坦白地說

Speaking of (=Talking of…) 說到

Broadly speaking 廣義地說

Concerning 關於

Roughly speaking 大略地說

Seeing that 既然

According as 根據, 取決於

According to 根據, 依據

Allowing for 考慮到

Assuming 假設、假定

Depending on 依據、根據

Honestly speaking 老實說

Provided/ providing 假如

Regarding 至於、關於

Seeing 由於、以鑒於

Speaking of 說到

Supposing 假設

關係代名詞當主詞受格所有格講義

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