雙重否定句 not,never,no without/butVR

                        that ….not + V

否定字   +…        but …..+ V         沒有不…

(not,never,no)     without + O.

without用法

(1) N + without + N(沒有……的……):作形容詞片語,修飾前面的名詞。

• I like to drink coffee without sugar. (我喜歡喝不加糖的咖啡)

(2) S + V… + without + N/V-ing(沒有……就……):作副詞片語,修飾前面的動詞。

  • In spite of the cold weather, he went out without his overcoat.
  • (儘管天氣寒冷,他出門沒有帶外套)
  • Some students go to school without having breakfast.
  • (有些學生去學校上課沒有吃早餐)

(3) Without + N, S + V-ed… → S + V-ed…without + N(若無/要是沒有,……):

配合假設句(動詞用過去式)。

• Without air, water, and sunlight, everything couldn’t live on earth.

(沒有水、空氣、陽光,萬物無法在地球上生存)

雙重否定的用法

no/not/never…without + N/V-ing(每……必……/無……不……):雙重否定是強調肯定句的美化句型。without + N表「狀態」;without + V-ing則強調「動作」。

  • I couldn’t live till today without my grandmother.(沒有我祖母我無法活到今天)
  • One can’t succeed without perseverance.(人無毅力不能成事。)
  • Tony never writes an English composition without making many mistakes.(東尼每次寫英文作文必定犯許多錯。)

雙重否定句型亦可用關係子句的形式,應注意先行詞的單複數要與關係子句中動詞的單複數配合。

There is no … but V

(1) but為否定關係代名詞,故接肯定動詞;who為肯定關係代名詞,故接否定動詞。

• There is no mother but loves her children.

→ There is no mother who doesn’t love her children.

【who代替mother故搭配loves,又皆否定於是doesn’t love】

→ There is no mother doesn’t love her children. (×)【常犯錯誤】

(天下無不愛子女的母親。)

• There is no one but has his weak side.

→ There is no one without his weak side.

→ There is no one hasn’t his weak side.(×)【常犯錯誤】

(沒有人沒有缺點/人人都有缺點。)

(2) but之後保留主詞為舊式寫法。

• It never rains but it pours.(複句)

→ It never rains without pouring.(單句)

(禍不單行/不雨則已,雨必滂沱。)

• I never spend a day but I miss you.

→ I never spend a day without missing you.

(我沒有一天不想你。)

There is no N. but V. 沒有不…的

• There is no pleasure without pain.

→ No pleasure without pain.(省略There is)(有樂必有苦。)

• There is no gain without pain.

→ No gain without pain.(省略There is)

→ No pain, no gain.(不勞則無穫。)

No sweet without sweat. (不經一番寒徹骨,焉得梅花撲鼻香。)

No smoke without fire. (無風不起浪。)

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